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Our body requires energy to support life. Our body obtains energy from food that we eat. During digestion, body mechanisms breaks down complex energy molecules of food into simpler substances such as glucose. That is why the respiration is considered as an exothermic reaction because this glucose is used with oxygen during the cellular respiration and gives energy. The releasing of energy carries on during the whole process.
In decomposition reactions a compound breaks down to form two or more substances. These reactions require a source of energy to proceed. Thus, they are the exact opposite of combination reactions. In the combination reaction, two or more substances combine to give a new substance with the releasing of energy.
Example of decomposition reaction:
2H2O(l) Electrolysis → 2H2(g) + O2(g)
Example of combination reaction :
2H2(g) + O2(g) → 2H2O(l) + Energy
In a displacement reaction a more reactive element replace a less reactive element from its compound.
General equation for displacement reaction:
A + Bx → Ax + B
Here, A is more reactive element and B is less reactive element.
CuSO4(aq) + Zn → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu
In double displacement reaction, the exchanging of ions are taken place.
General equation for this reaction:
ABx + CDx → CBx + ADx
Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)
The white precipitate of BaSO4 is formed by this reaction.
Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) → CaCO2(S) + 2NaCl(aq)
In this reaction, calcium carbonate is obtained as a precipitate. Hence, it is a precipitation reaction.
(a) Oxidation: if a substance gains oxygen or loses hydrogen during a reaction, it is oxidised. Such reaction is known as oxidation.
2Cu + O2 heat → 2CuO
Example1: Copper gains oxygen and gets oxidised.
Example2: Hydrogen gains oxygen and gets oxidised.
(b) Reduction: If a substance loses oxygen or gains hydrogen during a reaction, it is reduced. Such reaction is called reduction.
CuO + H2 heat → Cu + H2O
ZnO + C → Zn + CO
Example1: Here Copper loses oxygen and gets reduced.
Example2: Here zinc loses oxygen and it gets reduced.
ZnO + C → Zn + CO
We apply paint on iron articles to prevent corrosion. Paints or oil keeps away iron surfaces by contacting with air or air moisture. Iron gets corrode due to come in contact of air and water vapour.
Nitrogen is an anti-oxydising agent (antioxidant). It reduces the possibility of getting oxidised of food items. So Oil and fat containing food items are flushed with nitrogen. Some oily and fat containing food items get spoilt due to rancidity.
When a metal is attacked by substances around it such as moisture, acids, and water vapour etc. It react with these substances and forms metal oxides. These metal oxides get lost from it's surface. It is said to corrode and this process is called corrosion. Corrosion is a process of corrode the metal in which metal loses it's metal surface.
When fats and oils are oxidised, they become rancid and their smell and taste change. The process of oxidising such a food material is known as Rancidity.
when a magnesium ribbon is burnt in presence of Oxygen, it gets converted to magnesium oxide.
(i)‘X’ is Calcium oxide Or Quick lime. Its formula is CaO.
(ii) CaO(S) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq)
(Quick lime) (Slaked lime)
(iii)In cement industry.
The following methods are used to prevent iron articles from corrosion.
(ii)Painting and greasing.
(iii)Oiling and by plastic coating.
Two or more than two substance join together to form a new chemical substance is process is called chemical reaction. In other words "Chemical changes are also known as chemical reaction".
Unbalanced chemical equation is called skeletal equation.
Mg + O2 → 2MgO
In this example the reactant side and product side no of elements are not equal or balanced so this is a skeletal equation.
The formula of white washing material is equaous solution of CaO (calcium oxide). Calcium oxide when reacted with water produces Calcium hydroxide(Lime water). This absorbs the Carbon dioxide present in the environmental air and produces Calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This Calcium carbonate forms a hard coating precipitate on the walls. This white precipitate give bright shine to white washing.
Basically formula of white washing is Ca(OH)2 Calcium hydroxide(Lime water).
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